Development Of Nervous System In A Child :Its Importance

A newborn child is a universe in itself. The initial years are of most importance and require great care and attention. There are several changes taking place in the body as the growth takes place at an exponential rate. Most of the development in a child takes place in the first five years. Similarly, the development of the nervous system too, takes place in the initial years, which later helps the child to learn, speak, think and carry out several activities. 


The spinal cord, the brain and the nerves make up the nervous system. There are two types of nervous system, the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system. A child goes through four stages of nervous system development. At birth, the bones in the skull of the newly born baby are soft and flexible. Later, as the baby grows, the bones become strong and hard. The development of the central nervous system which comprises the brain and the spinal cord, starts right when the child is in the womb. 


The development of the brain in childhood depends on various factors such as the child’s environment, relations and experiences. At birth itself, the brain has approximately 100 billion to 1 trillion neurons. The well development of the brain depends upon the proper nutrition and brain building activities. 


The 6 stages of Development Of Nervous System are – 

As mentioned earlier, the development of the nervous system begins in the womb itself. There are millions of nerves present all over the body which help in carrying out several functions of the body. The neurons are responsible for major functions such as learning and memorizing, and thus their development continues for lifetime. The formation of neurons in children is as follows :


  • Stage 1- Neurogenesis

This is the first step in the formation of neurons in the body. The cells undergo mitosis, in order to produce neuroblasts, or stem cells which ultimately can be differentiated into neurons. 


  • Stage 2- Cell Migration 

At this stage, things start getting a bit complex. Here, the cells start moving to great distances in order to form distinct nerve cell populations. For example- layers of cerebral cortex, nuclei in the central nervous system. 


  • Stage 3- Cell Differentiation 

In the process of cell differentiation, the cells form into distinctive types of neurons or glial cells. 


  • Stage 4- Synaptogenesis 

As the name suggests, synaptogenesis is the establishment of synaptic connections as axons and neurons grow. The synapses, axons and the dendrites all help in communication. The formation of synaptic connection starts right from the second trimester and continues throughout childhood and adult life.  


  • Stage 5 – Neuronal Cell Death 

This is the selective death of nerve cells. 


  • Stage 6- Synapse Rearrangement 

In this stage, some synapses are lost whereas, on the other hand, other synapses are developed in order to refine synaptic connections. 


Food and Nutrition for the Development Of Nervous System

Food is the fuel for the human body. It is quintessential that a growing child gets the right nutrition supplement in order to ensure their robust growth. Some of the food items that serve as good nourishments are – eggs, greek yogurt, green leafy vegetables, fish, nuts and seeds such as peanuts and sunflower seeds, oatmeal, fruits such as apples, bananas and plums. All of these foodstuffs will aid in enhancing memory and improving cognitive skills. 


Children are prone to harm or nerve damage. While it’s not that common for a nerve damage there’s always a possibility. Given below is the list of best food for nerve repair. 

  • Food rich in magnesium and potassium help in curbing the nerve pain. Leafy vegetables, pumpkin seeds, fresh fruits, almonds, avocado, tofu, salmon, etc. are rich in magnesium and potassium. 
  • Foods high in Omega 3 such as sardines, walnuts, salmon, etc.  
  • Vitamins such as b12, b6, b2.
  • Anti inflammatory foodstuffs such as ginger can heal the nerve damage pain
  • Turmeric, a spice easily found in every household has several medicinal properties.  

The importance of Development Of Nervous System

The nervous system is the engine of the human body. It controls every cell, tissues and organ system in the body. Hence, it’s crucial that no harm is caused to the nervous system.  If the nervous system is harmed, there can be grave repercussions. Every part of the nervous system carries out major functions in the body. The spine, the skull and the vertebrae, thus exist in order to protect these fragile systems.


A child is just a delicate being as the nervous system. Thus, one needs to take utmost care while bringing them up. At times, because of some complications, or heredity and environmental factors, there is the late development process of the nervous system. In cases such as these, it is important that you seek guidance and treatment from a neurologist. Seek treatment from the best neurologist in Delhi for the well being of your child. 


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