Dr Chandril Chugh

Dr Chandril Chugh

MBBS ( Delhi), MD, DM(ABPN), Neurosurgenology, FAHA, FACP, FINR, FNCC

Get Consultation from the Best Pediatric Neurologist In Patna, OnCerebral Palsy Symptoms, Types & Treatment

    What is cerebral palsy?

    Various illnesses collectively known as cerebral palsy impair normal mobility in various body areas. This disorder may lead to posture, gait, muscle tone, and movement coordination issues.

    The brain’s cerebrum, which controls motor function, is called the “cerebral” in the world. The condition known as “palsy” refers to the paralysis of voluntary movement in particular body parts.

    The location of the brain lesion distinguishes different types of cerebral palsy. Depending on how severely the brain is injured,

    What is cerebral palsy?

    Types of cerebral palsy

    Ataxic cerebral palsy

    This kind of results in problems with movement and motor control due to cerebellar injury.

    Spastic cerebral palsy

    he most prevalent kind of cerebral palsy, which is characterized by tight muscles and jerky movements and is brought on by injury to the motor cortex or pyramidal tracts

    Athetoid/dyskinetic cerebral palsy

    Muscle twitching and involuntary movements are signs of injury to the basal ganglia and cerebellum.

    Mixed cerebral palsy

    Patients may experience different types of cerebral palsy depending on the extent of their brain injury

    Hypotonic cerebral palsy

    This uncommon form, likewise brought on by cerebellar damage, is distinguished by floppy muscles, excessive flexibility, and restricted motion.

    The management of the disorder will influence whether motor abilities improve or deteriorate over time. There are numerous medical and support options to help children with cerebral palsy lead happy, meaningful lives. At the same time, symptoms and severity vary from case to case.

    Symptoms of Cerebral Palsy

    Symptoms of Cerebral Palsy

    • Everyone is affected by cerebral palsy differently, and symptoms might be minor or severe. Some CP patients experience slight weakness in one arm or leg. Other CP sufferers struggle to speak, walk, or carry out basic chores because of severe.
    • Limitations. Cerebral palsy symptoms might show as early as birth or in the first few years of life. Depending on the type of CP, symptoms change.
    • Learning difficulties or speech delays may be seen in children with CP.
    • Low muscle tone: Some CP infants have low muscle tone, often known as hypotonia. They have bad posture and a slouching, limping feeling. Hypotonic infants may not have control over their heads. They might have very flexible limbs.
    • Hypertonia: Certain kinds of CP result in hypertonia or increased muscular tone. Infants with CP may appear to be constantly extending their arms or arching their backs. Their muscles may tense violently, and their legs may stiffen and move like scissors.
    • Speaking and swallowing difficulties: People with CP may find it difficult to speak due to muscle tone and control issues. Due to difficulties chewing, swallowing, and controlling the mouth, tongue, and throat muscles, they may have difficulty eating or drinking.
    • Babies with hemiplegic cerebral palsy may crawl using just one leg and arm. They might use just one hand to grasp items. Older children may limp when they walk.
    • One side of the body is preferred. Babies with hemiplegic cerebral palsy can crawl with just one arm and one leg. They might use just one hand to grasp items. Older kids could limp as they move.

    Causes of cerebral palsy

    The fetal or infant brain is harmed, which results in cerebral palsy. Although the precise origin of a brain injury can be challenging to determine, a number of factors may contribute to a child’s development of the condition

    Typical causes of cerebral palsy include

    • viral and bacterial illnesses, including meningitis
    • bleeding in the brain
    • Head traumas that occurred during pregnancy, delivery, or within the first few years of life
    • Asphyxia, or a lack of oxygen to the brain before, during, or after delivery
    • exposure to alcohol and drugs during pregnancy
    • exposure to raw or undercooked meat or seafood during pregnancy
    Causes of cerebral palsy

    Classification of cerebral palsy

    Three main classifications of cerebral palsy are used to explain the various mobility deficits. The various brain parts are likewise affected by the classifications in distinct ways.

    Spastic type

    The most typical form of cerebral palsy is this one. In 70 to 80 percent of cases, it happens. Nearly a third of those with cerebral palsy have this variety as well.
    Increased muscular tone is one of the characteristics of this kind of cerebral palsy. The corticospinal tract, or motor cortex, is thought to be affected. The areas that receive the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid, or GABA, are affected by this component.

    Ataxic type

    Damage to the cerebellum, or lower brain region near the back of the skull, causes this type of cerebral palsy.
    These kids struggle with fine motor abilities, including writing, typing, and using their fingers for small movements. They also have trouble walking with balance. They might also have issues processing sounds and images.

    Dyskinetic type

    The muscular tone is uneven here. It may occasionally be too loose or hypotonic or excessively tight or hypertonic. Typically, hypotonia appears before the age of one. Age-related improvements in muscular tone eventually lead to hypertonia.
    These individuals frequently exhibit involuntary movements and struggle to maintain an erect, steady stance, whether sitting or walking. These individuals find joining their hands or limbs challenging for any focused effort.

    Cerebral Palsy

    Can cerebral palsy be treated?

    Movement, speech, and quality of life improvements are the main targets of CP therapy. The most popular form of treatment for cerebral palsy is therapy.

    It’s important to begin therapy as soon as you can. Children can learn to walk, communicate, and care for themselves with the assistance of skilled therapists. They can teach you how to give your child therapy opportunities at home. Everyone’s course of treatment is unique and may include:

    • Therapy: A child’s ability to move, play, and engage with the environment is improved by physical, occupational, and speech treatments.
    • Medications: Botulinum toxin (Botox®) injections can improve stiffness and range of motion by temporarily weakening the muscles. Drugs that relax the muscles, such as baclofen, can ease stiffness and spasms.
    • Surgery: To increase mobility, your doctor might advise surgery. Surgeons can lengthen tendons and muscles, and they can also fix spinal issues. Selective dorsal rhizotomy (SDR), a procedure, may be beneficial for some patients. By removing hyperactive nerves in the spine, SDR doctors reduce leg muscle stiffness.