What is Haemorrhage?

Any kind of bleeding that leads to blood loss in the body is known as haemorrhage. This kind of blood loss can occur either, within the body (internal bleeding) or outside of the body (external bleeding). In case of internal bleeding, there is loss of blood through a damaged blood vessel or organ inside the body while in case of external bleeding, blood exits the body via a break in the skin.

What is Brain Haemorrhage?

A brain haemorrhage is a medical condition caused due to bleeding in the brain and requires immediate intervention. It is also known as a brain bleed or intracranial haemorrhage, which is a severe condition because any blood leak in the skull may cause compression and damage the brain tissues if not treated at the right time. A stroke occurs when blood flow to an area of the brain is cut off, as a result of which brain cells are deprived of oxygen and begin to die. In case of a haemorrhage in the brain, there is a bleed in the brain which usually occurs when blood from a weakened blood vessel starts to bleed inside the brain. This causes pressure from the leaked blood, which further causes damage to the brain cells, and as a result, the damaged area is unable to function properly.

What are the various types of brain haemorrhage?

There are a number of blood vessels running through the brain, and a rupture in any one of them can result in a brain bleed, thereby causing a significant risk to health in individuals. Depending upon the location where the rupture occurs, brain haemorrhages are categorised as the following:

  • Intracerebral haemorrhage: This kind of bleeding occurs inside the brain and is usually caused suddenly when blood suddenly bursts into the brain tissue. This condition is a medical emergency and requires immediate treatment and is generally caused by abnormally high blood pressure.
  • Subarachnoid haemorrhage: This is a condition in which blood vessels collect beneath a membrane that covers the brain, which usually contains cerebrospinal fluid. The accumulation of blood in this space can cause stroke and seizures in people, and may also lead to permanent brain damage. A subarachnoid haemorrhage is further classified into two categories: Traumatic, which refers to a brain injury which may be caused as a result of an accident or a fall and Spontaneous, which may occur suddenly without any warning and are caused as the result of a ruptured aneurysm or abnormalities in the blood vessels.
  • Subdural haemorrhage: This type of bleeding occurs below the dura’s inner layer and above the brain and is usually caused by a result of trauma or a head injury.

Epidural haemorrhage: This is a haemorrhage in the epidural space and occurs in patients with severe head trauma and skull fractures.

What are the causes of Brain Haemorrhage?

A brain haemorrhage can be very serious and cause damage to the brain. Reasons like tangling of blood vessels usually cause it; bleeding disorders; cerebral aneurysms; head injury; and blood thinners. It may also be caused due to excessive usage of drugs and smoking.

What are the symptoms of Brain Haemorrhage?

The symptoms of a brain haemorrhage can occur suddenly in the form of severe headache, sudden numbness on one side of the body, among other signs, which may include:

  • Sudden onset of severe headache
  • A sudden feeling of numbness, weakness or paralysis of the face, arms or leg, particularly on one side of the body
  • Difficulty in swallowing or in vision
  • Loss of balance
  • Difficulty in comprehension, slurred speech
  • Having trouble while reading or writing
  • Change in level of consciousness, often marked by lethargy, sleepiness or coma
What is the treatment for Brain Haemorrhage?

When a person exhibits a sign of brain haemorrhage, the doctor usually orders a computerised tomography (CT) scan or a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan to check for a brain haemorrhage and once diagnosed, they may monitor the bleeding by measuring intracranial pressure or by repeating head CT scans. Initially, if the severity is less, the doctor may prescribe medicines to keep blood pressure under check or recommend medication to prevent seizures. He may also give painkillers relief and prescribe a laxative to prevent any kind of strain during bowel movements. However, in case of bleeding, surgery is recommended to drain blood and repair the damage caused.

Where to seek treatment for Brain Haemorrhage?

In case a person has suffered from a brain haemorrhage, it is of utmost importance that they are provided with immediate medical care, following which a neurologist will determine the course of treatment, which could vary depending upon the age of the patient, their health condition, the intensity of damage and the location of the damage.

One of the best Neurologists in the New Delhi area who treats all kinds of traumatic brain injuries is Dr Chandril Chugh. He is a US-trained Neurologist with over 16-years of experience in treating all problems related to the brain and spine, including stroke, aneurysms in the brain, headaches. He is also an excellent back pain doctor to meet for all issues related to pain in the back and is also a spinal cord pain specialist.