Dr Chandril Chugh

Dr Chandril Chugh

MBBS ( Delhi), MD, DM(ABPN), Neurosurgenology, FAHA, FACP, FINR, FNCC

All You Need to Know About Tourette Syndrome, Types and Treatment from Best Pediatric Neurologist in Patna

    A neurological condition that affects the brain and nerves is known as Tourette syndrome (TS). Tics are uncontrollable motions or sounds that people make with TS. Since tics are involuntary, you cannot stop or control them. Body movements like shoulder shrugs are examples of motor tics. In early childhood, Tourette syndrome, sometimes known as Tourette’s, typically appears. It gets better with time. The most severe kind of tic disorder is called TS.

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    Symptoms

    The defining symptom of Tourette syndrome is tics, which are abrupt, fleeting, or intermittent motions or noises. They might be modest or severe. Severe symptoms may significantly impact communication, daily functioning, and life quality.

    Tics can be categorised as

    • Simple tics
    • Complex tics.

    Two types of tics

    Motor tics consist of

    • Head or arm jerking
    • Blinking
    • Posing a grin
    • Mouth fluttering
    • Shrugging shoulders

    Vocal tics consist of

    • yelping or barking
    • spitting out your throat
    • sneezing Grunting
    • Shouting
    • Sniffing

    There are both simple and sophisticated swearing tics.

    It is unknown what causes Tourette syndrome (TS) explicitly. Since the illness frequently runs in families, genes are most likely involved. TS may also be impacted by issues with how your brain metabolises (degrades) neurotransmitters. Dopamine is one of the neurotransmitters, which are brain chemicals that control behaviour and movement.

    Risk

    Tourette syndrome risk factors include:

    Gender: Males have a three- to four-fold higher risk of developing TS than females.

    Family history: TS is an inherited condition that parents may pass on to their offspring.

    Health throughout pregnancy: Children born to mothers who smoked or experienced medical issues during pregnancy may be more susceptible to TS. The likelihood of TS may also rise with low birth weight.

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    Causes

    Some tics, such as motor tics that drive someone to hit themselves in the face, can be dangerous. Coprolalia, a vocal tic, causes incorrect vocabulary or profanity. Even though it is an involuntary inclination, this kind of behaviour might give the impression that someone is trying to be offensive or disruptive. Coprolalia may result in unjustified discipline at home or school for children.

    Complications

    Many people with Tourette syndrome lead active, healthy lives. However, the behavioural and social difficulties that Tourette syndrome typically brings can damage your self-image.

    The following conditions are frequently linked to Tourette syndrome:

    • ADHD is an attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.
    • OCD, or obsessive-compulsive disorder
    • Autism spectrum condition
    • Having trouble learning
    • sleep problems
    • Depression
    • Anxiety conditions
    • Tic-related pain, particularly headaches
    • Management of anger issues

    How does behavioural treatment benefit people with Tourette syndrome?

    Since the tics linked to Tourette’s are uncontrollable, you cannot control them. However, new treatments can help people control their tics and lessen their detrimental effects.

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    CBIT (Comprehensive Behavioural Intervention for Tics) aids individuals by:

    When a tic occurs, take a fresh, distinct action. This is known as a “competing response.” The involuntary action (blinking) is reduced by a voluntary action (squinting your eyes).

    Recognise tics: A premonitory desire is a feeling that some people experience just prior to a tic. They might be able to hide or control the tic by being aware of this urge.

    Reduce tics: Tics are often made worse by excitement or worry. Tics may become less frequent if you maintain your composure and steer clear of stressful situations.

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    Diagnosis of Tourette Syndrome

    Your doctor could recommend seeing a neurologist.

    who treats neurological problems if you or your kid exhibits signs of Tourette’s. The condition cannot be tested for, yet they will ask you questions like:

    What did you see that prompted you to come here today?

    Do you frequently make uncontrollable movements with your body?

    For how long has that been taking place?

    Do you ever speak or make noises unintentionally?

    When did it first begin?

    Does anything help with your symptoms?

    Why do they get worse?

    Do you worry or have difficulty concentrating?

    Do any other members of your family also experience the same symptoms?

    To rule out other disorders with symptoms similar to Tourette’s, your doctor may perform imaging studies on your brain. They could consist of:

    MRI. It creates images of the organs and structures inside your body using solid magnets and radio waves.

    City Scan. It uses a solid X-ray to provide precise images of your internal organs.

    Treatment

    Tourette syndrome has no known treatment. Treatment aims to control tics that interfere with daily life and functioning. If the tics are not severe, treatment might not be necessary.

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    Medication

    The following medicines can help suppress tics or lessen the symptoms of related conditions:

    Drugs that reduce or block dopamine

    • Shots of botulinum toxin (Botox)
    • Medicine for ADHD
    • Adrenergic blockers in the brain
    • Antidepressants. 
    • anti-epileptic drugs
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    Whenever I visit a doctor

    If you find your child making sounds or motions that are not of their own volition, take them to the paediatrician.

    Tics do not always signify Tourette syndrome. Tics are common in young children and typically disappear within a few weeks or months. However, determining the source and ruling out severe medical issues is critical when a youngster behaves strangely.